The Bible often calls Jesus the Son of God and states that God is his Father, titles or expressions denoting a purely spiritual relationship between God and Christ.
These terms have absolutely no sexual or carnal overtones whatsoever, i.e. they do not imply that God had sex with a woman who then gave birth to Jesus his Son.
The author of Quran, however, assumes that the only way for God to be the Father of Jesus (or of anyone else) is through sexual procreation, that God can only become a Father by having a wife with whom he has sex. THIS IS THE MAIN ARGUMENT of the Quran against believing that God has a Son. Allah says he can have biological children from the hooris of paradise, which shows he is a biological god.
“Quran 21:17: Had We intended to take a pastime (i.e. a wife or a son, etc.), We could surely have taken it from Us“
The Quran emphatically states: And they make the jinn associates with Allah, while He created them, and they falsely attribute to Him sons and daughters without knowledge; glory be to Him, and highly exalted is He above what they ascribe (to Him). Wonderful Originator of the heavens and the earth! How could He have a son when He has no consort, and He (Himself) created everything, and He is the Knower of all things. S. 6:100-101 Shakir
The truth is that – exalted be the Majesty of our Lord – HE has taken unto Himself neither wife nor son, S. 72:3 Sher Ali
“Son of” doesn’t necessarily mean that someone was literally born of someone but REFERS TO ONE’S NATURE. For example, Julius Caesar, Augustus, Tiberius, and subsequent Roman emperors were regularly referred to as “son of God” (divi filius), on coins and inscriptions, as were a host of Greco-Roman “heroes” whom were called “divine men.”
Biblical examples are the Sons of Thunder in Mark 3 for James and John. Joses/Barnabas who was called the Son of Encouragement. Judas was called the Son of Perdition in John 17. To each one was assigned the nature of the “Son of” that description.
Jesus, “Son of God” is referring to Jesus being God!
John 3:18 is calling Jesus an only Son or only Begotten. This has nothing to do with procreation but is a claim against the popular Caesars of the day who claimed to be divine. The word used was “monogenes.” which means “one and only.” Mono- one or singular; genes- kind.
Jesus said to his disciples, “Who do you say I am?”
Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.”
Jesus’ response was, “Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by man, but by my Father in heaven.
Jesus attributes this revelation to God, to God– not to man.
The son of the father can take on a similar meaning found in their own Qur’an.
Muhammad had an uncle whose name was Abdul Uza, but in the Qur’an he is called Abu Lahab – the Father of a flame. This does not mean that he gave birth to a flame? (Qur’an Sura 111:1)
A wayfarer is called, Ibn as-sabeel – Son of the road. This does not mean that the road has a wife and conceived a road even to a Muslim. (Qur’an Sura 2:177).
Just as the Bible teaches God is the Father of lights, he did not beget light. Muslims call the wives and sex slaves of Muhammad as “Mother of believers”. (Muhammad made this law to forbid his followers to marry his wives after his death.)
Umm al-Kitab – means the Mother of the book (Qur’an Sura 3:7; 13:39; 43:3). This does not mean she gave birth to the book.
We want Muslims to understand what “son of” actually means in the Bible. It does not mean an offspring or in having sex with God.
Son of God is used in a spiritual sense implying a UNIQUE RELATIONSHIP with God that no one else has. We call him the Son of God because the Bible states he is the Son of God, Jesus said He is the Son. To say he is not the Son of God when God says He is, is to deny God’s revelation!
If this has Christ’s own approval would it not be prudent to determine what He meant by this? The Bible does use both Son and Father in a spiritual manner in Hebrew. God is called Abi-Ad the Father of eternity. Among the ancient Hebrews the term Father of, was always used to indicate Him who possessed the thing that followed.
God the Father is called the Father of Spirits (Heb.12:9) and the Father of lights (James.1:17). This again does not mean a literal begetting of light or Spirits. It shows God being the source of life as the Father of Spirits, the Father of lights means He is the source of the the sun and stars, and more than that, the source of enlightenment.
source: Answering Islam – Jesus is God.