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Versions Of The Quran

Versions Of The Quran

Muslims believe that the Quran is unchanged and there are no variants in their scripture. We are told that all Muslims all over the world use the one and the same Quran.

Is this true?

Walk into your local Islamic bookshop and ask what versions of the Quran they sell.


This online books store, has 13 versions of the Quran in Arabic.




This bookshop in Jordan has over 20 Arabic versions of the Quran for sale.



Muslims say these are not different versions.  We need to know there are 7 ahrufs, and  qira’at, different ways of reciting.  There are very minor differences, mainly vocal variations; slight differences in the way the verses are recited.

Some of these are  Qalun, Al-Duri, Khalaf, etc. The two most widely used versions in existence today are the Hafs and Warsh versions.

What version do you use? Is yours a Hafs or Warsh version?

Here’s how you can tell…

Look at the first verse of Sura al-Fatihah. If there is a number “1” after the ‘Bismillah’ verse, then you have the Hafs version. If not, you have the Warsh version. Also, if you’re in Saudi Arabia, you’re using the Hafs. If you live in Morocco, you’re using the Warsh.

Do all these versions use the same Arabic words and text and carry the same meanings?


Here are a some examples of text variants that can be found in the different Arabic versions that show that the Quranic text and meaning itself has been altered!  You look at these and judge for yourselves.


Hafs vs AlSusi  – Different Pronouns Used!



Grammatical Error in Hafs! Not in Ruh!




Hafs vs alDuri: Different Words Used!



Hafs vs Warsh: Different Sentence Structure!



Hafs vs alBazzi: Different Verbs Used!



Hafs vs Warsh: Different Pronouns Used



Why are there numerous variances?

Compare Sura 2:125 in Hafs with the Warsh.

Hafs has this: وَاتَّخِذوْا “WatakhIzu” (You shall take) BUT in Warsh it is وَاتَّخَذوْا “WatakhAzu” (They have taken/made).
The Hafs version gives a command, while Warsh states a historical observation.  Same verse but different words used and different meanings rendered. here are a few other differences found comparing Hafs and the Warsh.






Do you know how many verses are there in the Quran? You will find that number of verses in Hafs is 6236, while Warsh has only 6214 verses.

Which one is the right version? Which one did Muhammad recite? Which one matches the eternal preserved tablets that is with Allah?


Interesting fact: Did you know the the official version of the Quran was only finalized in 1924 in Cairo, Egypt? It was only authorized officially as recently as 1985, in Saudi Arabia. Why did it take 1300 years for the world to finalize and authorize the Quran, if there has always been just the one and the same Quran all ver the world? Now you know why.

Allah said that he will preserve his word (Sura 15:9).  Did someone manage to change his words?


What Came First – Bible or Quran?

What Came First – Bible or Quran?

If tomorrow morning, I make a claim that an angel of God had appeared to me and told me to write a new holy book and to call it the final and ultimate scriptures for the whole world, would you accept what I say?

You’d laugh at me. You’d call me delusional.  You’d also shame me by asking for some form of proof or evidence, that an angel had appeared to me.  If I cannot offer any evidence, what would you call me? A lunatic and a liar?

But let’s say, you choose to give me the benefit of the doubt, and decide to examine my new scriptures, just to humor me. Then as you start reading my book, you find that it does not agree with the earlier revealed scripture, the Quran.

Would you accept that my book is the right one and reject your book? Of course not. You will challenge me to prove that my book is true!

What if I explain to you that the reason my scripture differs from the Quran is because the Quran has been corrupted? Would that be ridiculous!  Of course, it will not make sense at all for me to claim that!

I would have to prove that what is written in my scripture is true. And not make allegations that the Quran is false, and thus my book is true.

In other words, you would not judge your Quran based on what my new scripture says. Rather, you will judge my book based on what your Quran says!  If my book contradicts the earlier revelation of the Quran, then my book is wrong. As simple as that.


The Burden Of Proof

The Quran was written in 7th century AD by the recitations of a man in the desert who claimed an angelic being visited him.  I’m not saying it didn’t happen. I’m asking can anyone verify this visitation? There were no witnesses to what actually happened. And Muhammad did no miracles to prove what he was saying, like the prophets of old like Moses or Elijah.

Yet, he revealed a new scripture, the Quran, that contradicts the earlier revealed scriptures, the Bible.  The Bible was written between 1400 BC & 95 AD. By 400AD, hundreds of years before Muhammad, the Bible was already widely distributed throughout the known world at that time in multiple languages. And yet, Muslims claim that it is the Bible that has been corrupted instead of showing proof that what the Quran says is true. Muhammad himself never claimed that the earlier scriptures were corrupted or lost. In fact, he affirmed and praised them.

You cannot judge the Bible based on what the Quran says. Rather, you have to judge the Quran based on what the Bible says. Since Islam came many centuries after Christianity, Islam has the burden of proof and not Christianity. The Bible tests and judges the Quran. If the Bible and the Quran contradict each other, the Bible must logically be given first place as the older authority. The Quran is the one in error until it proves itself. 

Can God Have A Son?

Can God Have A Son?

Muslims are disgusted at the thought of God having a Son.  Sadly, Muslims think this is what Christians believe ~ that Jesus was born because God was the Father and Mary was the mother. This is blasphemy, they cry.

Actually, it is we Christians who are disgusted that Muslims would even think or suggest this!

Muslims fail to understand that “Son of God” is a title, just like “Messiah” is a title.  Son-ship does not mean a biological relationship but a spiritual one. Son of God means ‘of the same essence’ or ‘of the same nature’ as God.

If I say, I am a son of my country, does it mean my country had sex and gave birth to me?  If we say, Gandhi was the father of India, does it mean Gandhi had to have sex with someone to produce India? In Ephesians, there is the phrase “sons of disobedience” referring to those who are allied with satan.  ‘Sons of disobedience’ simply means they are of the nature of disobedience.

Why are Muslims confused with the understanding of the word “Son”? There are two words in Arabic for “son”. One is “Ibn” ﺍﺑﻦ and the other is Walad ﻮﻟﺪ

‘Walad’ means a ‘physical son’ in the literal sense of the word, as in the biological product of a sexual union between a man and a woman.
“Ibn” can also mean son, but it can carry a more spiritual or metaphorical meaning.

So I could say. I’m a son (walad) of my dad and I’m a son (ibn) of my country.  There would be no confusion about what I mean.  Unfortunately, in English, there is only one word for son, while there are two in Arabic. Yet, it is the Muslims who are confused when reading the Bible and Quran.


In Matthew 16:16, Peter says to Jesus: “You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God.” This same Bible verse in Arabic is: فَأجابَ سِمعانُ بُطرُسُ: «أنتَ هُوَ المَسِيحُ، ابْنُ اللهِ الحَيِّ.

What is the word used for Son here? it’s “Ibn” ﺍﺑﻦ . Not walad.
Let’s look at another one.

1 John 4:15: “If anyone acknowledges that Jesus is the Son of God, God lives in them and they in God.”

In Arabic: وَكُلُّ مَنْ يَعتَرِفُ أنَّ يَسُوعَ هُوَ ابنُ اللهِ، فَإنَّ اللهَ يَثْبُتُ فِيهِ، وَهُوَ يَثْبُتُ فِي اللهِ.

What is the word used for Son here again? “Ibn” ﺍﺑﻦ

Whenever a reference is made to Jesus as the Son of God, it is always in this sense. Nothing else.

Read your Bibles in Arabic, and I challenge you to show me any reference where Jesus is said to be “walad” (biological son) of God. It’s always “ibn”. In other words, Jesus is Ibnu’llah, not Walad’ullah.
This is what Christians have always believed. This is what the Bible teaches. No Christian has ever thought or imagined that Jesus was the biological son of God, the result of some divine-human sexual intercourse.

But this is exactly what Muslims have tried to force on Christians insisting that this is what we believe! No, we don’t! Muslims have created their own straw man and have been attacking it for ages! And they don’t even realize it! This is a logical fallacy.

God is Spirit. A human is a physical being. God does not relate to humans the way a man and a woman do with each other in a sexual union.

In fact, the Bible says in Isaiah, 700 years before Mary was even born: “A virgin shall conceive and bear a child”. It says VIRGIN. When Mary conceived, she was a virgin. When she bore the child, she was still a virgin.

Nothing happened. So, please get your minds out of the gutter!:)
So where does a Muslim get this idea from, that Jesus is the biological son of God, if it is not from Christians and not from the Bible?
Let’s take a look at the Quran and see if we can get some help.

Turn to Surah 6:101:
To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth: How can He have a son when He hath no consort? He created all things, and He hath full knowledge of all things.

بديع السماوات والأرض أنى يكون له ولد ولم تكن له صاحبة وخلق كل شيء وهو بكل شيء عليم
هو { بديع السماوات والأرض } مبدعهما من غير مثال سبق { أنَّى } كيف { يكون له ولد ولم تكن له صاحبة } زوجة { وخلق كلَّ شيء } من شأنه أن يخلق { وهو بكل شيء عليمٌ } .

BadeeAAu assamawatiwal-ardi anna yakoonu lahu waladun walamtakun lahu sahibatun wakhalaqa kulla shay-in wahuwabikulli shay-in AAaleem

Do you see what word is used for son? It’s WALAD!  In other words, this verse is talking about a physical biological “son”.
Another one: Surah 39:4
Had Allah wished to take to Himself a son, He could have chosen whom He pleased out of those whom He doth create: but Glory be to Him! (He is above such things.) He is Allah, the One, the Irresistible.

لو أراد الله أن يتخذ ولدا لاصطفى مما يخلق ما يشاء سبحانه هو الله الواحد القهار

Law arada Allahu an yattakhithawaladan lastafa mimma yakhluqu mayashao subhanahu huwa Allahu alwahidualqahhar

Again, did you notice which word is used for son? WALAD! Not IBN!

No wonder Muslims think that when we talk about God’s Son, it must means a biological son of God because that is the word that the Quran uses!  But that’s never in the Bible!

The Quran is basically saying that God does not have or take a son as a result of any sexual union. AND WE CHRISTIANS AGREE 100%.
Here are more Quranic verses that uses the word “walad” when speaking about son.

Surah 19:35
It is not befitting to (the majesty of) Allah that He should beget a son. Glory be to Him! when He determines a matter, He only says to it, “Be”, and it is.

ما كان لله أن يتخذ من ولد سبحانه إذا قضى أمرا فإنما يقول له كن فيكون

Ma kana lillahi anyattakhitha min waladin subhanahu itha qadaamran fa-innama yaqoolu lahu kun fayakoon
Surah 43:81
Say: “If (Allah) Most Gracious had a son, I would be the first to worship.”

قل إن كان للرحمن ولد فأنا أول العابدين
قل إن كان للرحمن ولد } فرضاً { فأنا أول العابدين } للولد لكن ثبت أن لا ولد له تعالى فانتفت عبادته .

Qul in kana lirrahmaniwaladun faana awwalu alAAabideen
Surah 19:91
That they attribute to the Most Merciful a son.
أن دعوا للرحمن ولدا
An daAAaw lirrahmaniwalada

My question is: Who has ever attributed a ‘WALAD’ to God?  Not Christians. Whoever said or wrote this verse was unaware that Christianity does not say that God has a ‘WALAD’.  So why are there such verses in the Quran?


What does all this mean?

If we look at all these verses in the Quran, and based on these verses, we can come to a few simple conclusions:

1. Allah does not have a son (walad; a physical, biological son)

2. If Allah wished to have a son (walad), he could. It is a possibility IF he wanted to. (43:81).

3. But if Allah wanted to have a son (walad), he would need a wife/consort. (6:101)

4. Since Allah does not have a wife/consort, therefore Allah does not have a son (walad). (6:101)

5. If Allah did have a wife or a consort, then allah would have sex with his wife/consort and produce a son (walad).

(Note: Am I being crude and vulgar? I don’t think so. We are talking about what Allah himself is saying when he refers to wife/consort & son (walad). How else is a son (walad) produced if it is not by sex? Is this the way an omnipotent creator thinks? The idea sound very man-made to me. It is obviously the thinking of a man’s mind that is spelled out in these verses.  A God who is real and all-powerful and all-knowing would not be discussing the need for a wife to produce a son.

The Quran denies that Allah has a “walad”. Fair enough.  However, where does the Quran deny the possibility of an “Ibn”. No where does the Quran say that Allah cannot have an “Ibn.”
In Surah 19:35, Allah says that he does not have son (walad) from sex because it is not befitting of his majesty. All he needs to say is “Be” and it is so. (Arabic: kun fayakun)

This verse is significant because it is said to be related to the birth of Jesus. (see also Sura 19:21). Is it true that God just said “kun fayakun” and Jesus was conceived and born?

That’s not what the Quran reports. Here’s what really went down that night.

The angel Jibreel came to Mary in the form of a human male. Sura 19:17

(side note: An angel takes the form of man. Can Allah do what an gel has the capability of doing? )

Back to our story. So the angel, who has taken the form of a man, now blows into the vagina of Mary. Yes, I said vagina. The arabic word used is “farj”. But the Quran’s translators, have toned it down using the word ‘garment/sleeves’ to “cover up”. The same story is repeated in Sura 66:12 and unmistakably, the word used is “nafakhna feehy” which means very clearly that ‘we blew into her organ/private parts/genitals’.

So that is how Jesus was conceived according, to the Quran. It was more than just “kun fayakun” as claimed.  How shocking and embarrassing it must have been for poor Mary. This young virgin who had never been with a man before and suddenly she’s confronted by a strange man. (The quran describes him as ‘well proportioned.) and he’s in front of her blowing into her!
Now we know why Muslims get so confused when we say Son of God.

Jesus did not become the Son of God when he was born of the virgin Mary. He was already the Son of God from the beginning, existing as the Word of God, before creation and before that Word became human. God is not Father because He produced a Son. He was already Father from the beginning, before creation.

So what does it mean when the Bible says Jesus is the Son of God? Ask a Christian and listen to them.

Sura 10:94 So if you are in doubt, [O Muhammad], about that which We have revealed to you, then ask those who have been reading the Scripture before you.

Who Says The Quran Is Incomplete & Imperfect?

Who Says The Quran Is Incomplete & Imperfect?

Who says the Quran is incomplete and imperfect?

Well, see for yourself.

As-Suyuti, one of the most famous and revered commentators of the Quran, quotes ‘Umar al Khattab, the second Caliph , as saying:

“Let no one of you say that he has acquired the entire Quran, for how does he know that it is all? Much of the Quran has been lost, thus let him say, ‘I have acquired of it what is available’” (As-Suyuti, Itqan, part 3, page 72)


Aisha, the favorite wife of the Prophet, says:

“During the time of the Prophet, the chapter of the Parties used to be two hundred verses when read. When Uthman edited the copies of the Quran, only the current (verses) were recorded” .

Notice Aishah says that Uthman EDITED the Quran.  What did he do to Allah’s words? Why is there a need to “EDIT”, if the Quran has always been perfect and unchanged? What was EDITED and what was not?


In Sahih Muslim 2286:”Abu Musa called 300 Basra reciters who were the best and they said:

“We used to recite a surah but we have forgotten it.”

The best reciters forgot an entire surah?


In Sahih Bukhari 6.61.527

“Ubayy was the best reciter yet we leave out some of what he recites.” 

Ubayy bin Ka’b, one of the great companions of Muhammad was the best reciter of the time but the Quran edited by Uthman apparently left out some of his recitations. What was left out?

Ubayy asked one of the Muslims, “How many verses in the chapter of the Parties?” He said, “Seventy-three verses.” He (Ubayy) told him, “It used to be almost equal to the chapter of the Cow (about 286 verses) and included the verse of the stoning”. The man asked, “What is the verse of the stoning?” He (Ubayy) said, “If an old man or woman committed adultery, stone them to death.”

Ubayy  was asking about Sura 33, Surah Al-Ahzab. In today’s Quran, this Surah has 73 verses. According to Ubayy bin Ka’b the best reciter of the time, this Surah used to have about 280 verses and almost equal in length with the longest Sura in the Quran today, Al-Baqara. What happened to more than 200 ayat Missing from Sura 33?


The lost verse of Rajm (stoning) which read as follows,

“The fornicators among the married men (ash-shaikh) and married women (ash-shaikhah), stone them as an exemplary punishment from Allah, and Allah is Mighty and Wise,” was originally found in Surah al-Ahzab.

But this verse does not exist in the Quran today!  This verse, along with verses regarding adult breast-feeding, are also lost. What happened to them?

Aisha, the favorite wife of the Prophet Muhammad tells us. In Sunan ibn Majah 1944, Aishah explains that the verses relating to Stoning and Adult Breast-Feeding were written down but…

“A sheep ate the verses under my pillow.”

The loss of the stoning verse is confirmed by Caliph Umar in Sahih Bukhari.



According to Abu Waqid al-Laithii, Muhammad recited to him the verse on “The Greed of Man” which read,

“We sent down wealth to maintain prayer and deeds of charity, and if the son of Adam had a valley he would leave it in search for another like it and, if he got another like it, he would press on for a third, and nothing would satisfy the stomach of the son of Adam but dust, yet Allah is relenting towards those who relent.”

Here is another important-sounding verse that is no longer found in today’s Qur’an. Maybe some Muslims might argue that the verse has been abrogated. But abrogated by what?  according to 2:106, Allah says, “We do not “nansakh”(abrogate) an “ayah” (verse), or “nunsiha” (make it forgotten), unless We bring one which is like it or even greater.” 


Zaid Ibn Thabit who was commissioned to compile the first Quran stated:

“I started looking for the Qur’an and collecting it from (what was written on) palm-leaf stalks, thin white stones, and also from the men who knew it by heart, till I found the last verse of Surat at-Tauba (repentance) with Abi Khuzaima al-Ansari, and I did not find it with anybody other than him.”

Surah al-Taubah was found with one person only. But the rule was: Zaid was only supposed to write down what was confirmed by at least TWO of Prophet Muhammad’s Companions. He wrote this verse down even though only one person had any memory of it.


Abu Musa al-Ash’ari, one of the early authorities on the Qur’an text and a companion of Muhammad, claimed:

“A surah which resembled at-Tawba in length and severity was forgotten and lost.” (Sahih Muslim, Vol. 2, p.501)

Surah at-Tawba today has 129 verses.  An entire Surah equivalent in length to this Surah 9 was “lost”! That’s 129 verses missing! That’s not all. Apparently Sura at-Tawba itself is missing some verses.


According to “The Itqan” by Suyuti Part 3, Page 184

“Malik says that several verses from chapter 9 (Sura of Repentance) have been dropped from the beginning. Among them is, ‘In the name of God the compassionate, the Merciful’ because it was proven that the length of Sura of Repentance was equal to the length of the Sura of the Cow.” 

Sura of the Cow (al-Baqarah) is the longest chapter with 286 verses.  If Surah 9 also used to have 286 verses, then 157 verses are missing because this Surah only has 129 verses today.


Abu Harb b. Abu al-Aswad reported on the authority of his father that Abu Musa al-Ash’ari sent for the reciters of Basra. And they said:

“And we used to recite a surah which resembled one of the surahs of Musabbihat, and I have forgotten it, but remember (this much) out of it: “O people who believe, why do you say that which you do not practise” (lxi. 2) and “that is recorded in your necks as a witness (against you) and you would be asked about it on the Day of Resurrection.”  Sahih Muslim 5:2286

You can search the entire Quran.  Such a surah containing such a verse is not found in today’s Quran.


Finally here’s a story that will shock you.

One of Muhammad’s personal scribes was Abdullah Ibn Abi Sarh. He would write down the prophet’s recitations faithfully.

But something strange happened….

One day while writing what Muhammad was reciting, Abdullah Ibn Abi Sarh stopped him and made a suggestion regarding the verse.  Instead of censuring his scribe for his insolence,  the prophet agreed to the changes and said “write whatever you like”.

This troubled Ibn Abi Sarh. If Allah had given the specific words to Muhammad, how could Muhammad allow it to be changed to write whatever he (Ibn Abi Sarh) liked?  The faithful sccibe was disillusioned. He exposed the prophet as a liar and a fake.  He left Islam and fled to Mecca.  Muhammad realizing he could be in trouble if Ibn Abi Sarh’s story came to light immediately received a new verse Sura 6:93 which condemns his old scribe as a liar, a wrongdoer and arrogant and promised a “punishment of extreme humiliation”.

Later when Muhammad came to conquer Mecca, guess who was the #1 on his hit list, to mete out the “punishment” ?

Here is the story as related in Alfiyyat us-Sîrat in-Nabawiyyah by al-Hâfidh al-‘Iraqî:

The scribes of Muhammad were 42 in number. `Abdallah Ibn Sarh al-`Amiri was one of them, and he was the first Quraishite among those who wrote in Mecca before he turned away from Islam.

He started saying, “I used to direct Muhammad wherever I willed. He would dictate to me ‘Most High, All-Wise’, and I would write down ‘All-Wise’ only. Then he would say, ‘Yes it is all the same’.

(also recorded in Usûd Ulghâbah fî Ma’rifat Is-Sahâbah, [Dâr al-Fikr, Beirut (Lebanon), 1995], Volume 3, p. 154)

On a certain occasion he (Muhammad) said, ‘Write such and such’, but I wrote ‘Write’ only, and he said, ‘Write whatever you like.’”

The verse (23:12) that says, ‘We created man of an extraction of clay’ was revealed, and when Muhammad reached the part that says, ‘… thereafter We produced him as another creature’ (23:14), ‘Abdallah said, ‘So blessed be God the fairest of creators!’ in amazement at the details of man’s creation. The prophet said, ‘Write it down; for thus it has been revealed.’ ‘Abdallah doubted and said, ‘If Muhammad is truthful then I receive the revelation as much as he does, and if he is a liar, what I said is a good as what he said.’”

(Anwar al-Tanzil wa Asrar al-Ta‘wil by ‘Abdallah Ibn ‘Umar al-Baidawi)


So on the day Muhammad conquered Mecca, he commanded his ex-scribe to be killed. But the scribe fled to Uthman Ibn Affan, because Uthman was his foster brother (his mother suckled Uthman). Uthman, therefore, kept him away from Muhammad. After the people calmed down, Uthman brought the scribe to Muhammad and sought protection for him. Muhammad kept silent for a long time, after which he said yes to preserve Abi Ibn Sarh’s life. When Uthman had left, Muhammad said to his followers there “I only kept silent so that you (the people) should kill him.”

How cowardly.


How many Surahs were there originally?

Today’s Quran, the version edited by Uthman, the 3rd Caliph, has 114 Surahs.

The best reciter during the time of Muhammad, Ubayy bin Ka’b, a close companion of the prophet, had his Quran had 116 Surahs. The two extra Surahs were  al-Hafd (the Haste) and al-Khal’ (the Separation).  These are not found in today’s Quran. Ubayy also combined Sura 105 and 106.  That’s not how it is arranged in today’s Quran. Don’t forget this man as the best reciter! Did he get it wrong?

Another companion and Quranic teacher was Abu Musa al-Ashari, who agreed with Ubayy, also had these two extra Surahs.  Two trusted Quranic teachers, fulfills the criteria of

The most trusted companion of Muhammad, Ibn Masood, has his Quran at around 110 Surahs, omitting Surah 1, 113 & 114, which are included Uthman’s Quran. Why?

Uthman, as we all know, of course, ordered every other version of the Quran burnt. Why would he do that?  To snuff out all the evidence? If the Quran had been perfectly preserved from Allah, as claimed by Muslims, why were there all these different versions in the first place? And please note that these versions were not by some impostors or forgers, in which case burning them could be justified.

But these were the most trusted and loyal companions (sahaba) of Muhammad himself, the very ones the prophet had entrusted with the words of the Quran! How do we know Uthman did not destroy the real Quran in his haste to declare that his version, the one compiled by Zaid ibn Thabit, was the correct one???

In fact, Ibn Masood’s Quran could really have been the genuine one.  He swore that he knew all the surahs of the Quran better than anyone else. His passion, love and devotion to the Prophet was unmistakable. Listen to what he says:

“By Allah other than Whom none has the right to be worshipped! There is no Sura revealed in Allah’s Book but I know at what place it was revealed; and there is no verse revealed in Allah’s Book but I know about whom it was revealed. And if I know that there is somebody who knows Allah’s Book better than I, and he is at a place that camels can reach, I would go to him”

“The people have been guilty of deceit in the reading of the Qur’an. I like it better to read according to the recitation of him (Prophet) whom I love more than that of Zaid Ibn Thabit. By Him besides Whom there is no god! I learnt more than seventy surahs from the lips of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, while Zaid Ibn Thabit was a youth, (before embracing Islam) having two locks and playing with the youth”.

Basically, Ibn Masood, the most trusted of Muhammad’s companions (sahaba) was condemning Uthman’s Quran (which was compiled by Zaid ibn Thabit) and rejecting it as corrupt and incomplete.


(There were also an additional two Surahs, known Al-Nurayn and al-Wilaya, that are claimed to be included in the Qur’an by some Shi’ite sects. These sects would supposedly argue that Ali had a different copy of the Qur’an as compared with the third Caliph Uthman. Again the question arises why are there such disputes if the Quran had been unchanged?   There was no way to determine whose version was accurate since none of these men were prophets.  Muhammad had long been dead by the time these Qurans surfaced.)


Were All The Verses Remembered Perfectly?

Narrated Aisha: The Prophet heard a man reciting the Qur’an in the mosque and said, “May Allah bestow His Mercy on him, as he has reminded me of such-and-such Verses of such a Surah.”Sahih Bukhari 6:61:556

‘A’isha reported that the Apostle of Allah heard a person reciting the Qur’an at night. Upon this he said: May Allah show mercy to him; he has reminded me of such and such a verse which I had missed in such and such a surah. Sahih Muslim 4:1720



Even the Prophet Muhammad did not remember the verses correctly.

Narrated Abdullah ibn Mas’ud: … (Muhammad said) I am only a human being and I forget just as you do; so when I forget, remind me … (Sunan Abu Dawud: bk. 3, no. 1015; also Sahih al-Bukhari:vol. 1, bk. 8, no. 394)

And they were reciting it differently.

Narrated Ibrahim: The companions of ‘Abdullah (bin Mas’ud) came to Abu Darda’, (and before they arrived at his home), he looked for them and found them. Then he asked them,: “Who among you can recite (Qur’an) as ‘Abdullah recites it?” They replied, “All of us.” He asked, “Who among you knows it by heart?” They pointed at ‘Alqama. Then he asked Alqama. “How did you hear ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud reciting Surat Al-Lail (The Night)?“ Alqama recited: “By the male and the female.” (Qur’an 92:3) Abu Darda said, “I testify that I heard the Prophet reciting it likewise, but these people want me to recite it: “And by Him Who created male and female.” (Qur’an 92:3) But by Allah, I will not follow them.” (Sahih al-Bukhari: vol. 6, bk. 60, no. 468; also Sahih Muslim: bk. 4, no. 1799-1802)


If the prophet and his companions are forgetting verses,  reciting it differently, how can it be said that the Quran is unchanged?  There are missing verses. Entire surahs lost because they were forgotten or simply eaten by a goat.

Is this why Umar had declared:

“Let no one of you say that he has acquired the entire Quran, for how does he know that it is all? Much of the Quran has been lost, thus let him say, ‘I have acquired of it what is available’

Is The Quran Perfectly Preserved?

Is The Quran Perfectly Preserved?

During the time of the Prophet Muhammad, the Quran did not exist in the form that we have now. Parts of it were scattered among his companions. While he was alive, the prophet gave no instructions to his followers about compiling the recitations into one complete book. The verses of the Quran existed mainly in the recitations of the Muslims but some verses were written on stones, bones and leaves.


The Four Teachers

Muhammad instructed his followers to learn the Quran from four individuals. The four chosen by the prophet were specifically: Abdulla Ibn Mas’ud, Salim (a freed slave of Abu Hudhaifa), Mu’adh bin Jabal and Ubay bin Ka’b. (Sahih Bukhari 6.61.521)

The first name on the list is Abdulla ibn Mas’ud, whom Muhammad personally entrusted as an authority on the Quran. Ubay ibn Ka’b, another one of the four, was also singled out by Muhammad and was considered to be the best reciter of the Quran of the time. In fact, Ubay was known as Sayidul Qura’ (meaning The Master of Reciters). Umar, the third Caliph, also agreed that Ubay was the best of reciters.


The Disaster

After Muhammad died in 632 AD, many Arab tribes revolted and some wanted to return to their old religions. This led to the Apostate Wars. (Ridda Wars). The caliph, Abu Bakr, went to war against the apostates. In one of these last wars, known as the Battle of  Yamama, thousands were killed. By the end of the war, 700 reciters (hafiz) of the Quran were dead.

This was a disaster and Umar, an upcoming leader and future caliph, foresaw the problem and realized that one day all the reciters would die. Without the reciters, there would be no more  Quran. So he approached Abu Bakr, the caliph at the time, to suggest that the Quran be compiled into a book. Abu Bakr, who had been the closest companion of Muhammad, was deeply troubled at this suggestion and said, “‘How can I do something which Allah’s Apostle has not done?” But Umar kept on arguing until Abu Bakr was persuaded.

Now instead of going to the four teachers that Muhammad had personally selected, Abu Bakr decided to go to Zaid Ibn Thabit, who had been a scribe of Muhammad, to ask him to compile the Quran. Zaid was shocked and said, “How dare you do a thing which the Prophet has not done?” They argued until they persuaded him too. And so Zaid Ibn Thabit, who was NOT one of the original four who were entrusted by Muhammad, began collecting those scraps of verses found on stones, leaves, bones and from the memories of men. Then he wrote it all out on to sheets of parchments.



What were the reactions of the four, whom Muhammad had personally chosen and entrusted with the words of the Quran? Obviously, they were upset and angry because they were not consulted by Abu Bakr nor Zaid ibn Thabit.

What did they do? Many of these early well-known scholars and reciters, including Ibn Ma’sud, Ubay bin Ka’b, Ali, Abu Musa, al-Aswad, and others rejected Abu Bakr’s ‘project’ and wrote their own versions of the Quran too as taught them by the prophet, separate from Zaid ibn Thabit.

(According to research there are listed 15 primary versions, and a large number of secondary versions which were derivatives from the primary ones).

Remember, by this time, Muhammad was no longer around and there was no other prophet who could approve or disapprove what they were doing. And none of these people were prophets. Meanwhile, Zaid worked on his compilation under the instruction of Abu Bakr. After he completed it, the copy was handed to Abu Bakr for safe-keeping. After Abu Bakr died, the copy was passed to Umar al Khattab, the second Caliph.

As-Suyuti, one of the most famous and revered of the commentators of the Quran, quotes ‘Umar al Khattab as saying:

“Let no one of you say that he has acquired the entire Quran, for how does he know that it is all? Much of the Quran has been lost, thus let him say, ‘I have acquired of it what is available’” (As-Suyuti, Itqan, part 3, page 72).



After Umar died, his daughter Hafsa inherited the copy and kept it under her bed. Many years passed, and Uthman, the third Caliph, who had succeeded Umar, began to realize that by this time, that many differing Qurans had surfaced! The verses was being recited differently because of different dialects and even the contents were different in different regions and this was beginning to cause major disputes among the people!

In the Kitab al-tabaqat vol 2 p444 – Ibn Sa’d says, “The people have been guilty in the reading of the Quran because of differing recitations.” This was especially evident among people of Sham and the people of Iraq. The differences were so great , not just in the pronunciations but in the content itself which differed. It was so serious that Uthman feared that in the future, no one would be able to know which is the true Quran.

So once again, history repeats itself and the Caliph Uthman, out of frustration commissions Zaid ibn Thabit again to re-write the new “official” version.

Why didn’t he just use the copy that was under Hafsa’s bed? The one that he had originally compiled under the direction of Abu Bakr? No, that wasn’t good enough according to Uthman. It had to be a “cleaner” final edited version so that there would be no more disputes.

One of the problems that existed in the texts was that in the early version, there were no dots and spaces between the letters and also no vowels. This can cause huge confusion. For example, the difference between the letters “ba”, “ta” and “tha” are just the number of dots! So without the dots and spaces, any word could be made to be some other word. Throw in the missing vowels and you get endless possibilities!

Uthman wanted this corrected. So Zaid used his version, comparing it with Hafsa’s version and added the necessary punctuations and vowels. In case there were differences, Uthman ordered Zaid to just use the version that the Quraysh tribe used. How can he just pick and choose which variant to use? Isn’t this supposed to to be the words of Allah?

[A bigger consideration is that vowels were only introduced in Arabic in the late 8th century. This proves that the Quran was not completed in the 7th century as claimed by some scholars. It had to be late 8th century, possibly early 9th century! This would take the timeline to more than hundred years after the death of Muhammad!]

Again, remember, Muhammad was long dead and there were no prophets to guide Zaid ibn Thabit. And, he did not consult the authoritative scholars chosen by Muhammad and entrusted with the words of the Quran.


The Order

Once Uthman’s version was completed, known as the Medinan Codex, he ordered that they make copies and sent to all the metropolitan centers, Mecca, Damascus, Kufa, Basra and one copy was kept in Medina. Where are these original copies now? No one knows. And no Muslim has been able to produce one to silence all the non-Muslim critics.

This is said to be in the 7th century. How can such important, valuable and obviously revered copies go missing?

(On the other hand, the Bible’s entire New Testament manuscript from the 4th century is available even today. You can see it for yourself in the British Library. Copies of it are also digitized and available online.)


Uthman did something even worse! He ordered that all versions of the Quran differing from his Quran to be destroyed! Why was there a need to burn these manuscripts of the Quran? How can Uthman be sure that he has not  destroyed forever the one true Quran?


Ibn Mas’ud

masudWhen they came to Baghdad to confiscate and burn the version belonging to Ibn Mas’ud, he was furious. Who can blame him! Ibn Mas’ud swore that he knew all the surahs of the Quran better than anyone else, saying

“By Allah other than Whom none has the right to be worshipped! There is no Sura revealed in Allah’s Book but I know at what place it was revealed; and there is no verse revealed in Allah’s Book but I know about whom it was revealed. And if I know that there is somebody who knows Allah’s Book better than I, and he is at a place that camels can reach, I would go to him.”

He was indignant that he was right. This makes sense because, according to Muhammad’s own words, Ibn Mas’ud was one of the chosen teachers whom Muslims were commanded to go to when learning the Quran.

Ibn Mas’ud’s Quran had 111 Sura (chapters). Uthman’s version written by Zaid had 114.

[Uthman’s text added these surahs – al-Fatiha and the mu’awwithatayni (surahs 113 and 114) which Ibn Mas’ud rejects. When we study the the rest of the differences in the text, we find that there were numerous other differences of reading between the texts of Zaid and Ibn Mas’ud. This is recorded in Ibn Abu Dawud’s Kitab al-Masahif and fills up no less than nineteen pages and, from all the sources available, one can trace no less than 101 differences in the Sura al-Baqarah alone!]

Ibn Mas’ud rejected Uthman’s Quran Actually, Ibn Mas’ud’s Quran was already in use, known widely and agreed upon by many Muslims. When Uthman ordered the destruction of Ibn Mas’ud’s version, Ibn Mas’ud gave a sermon in Kufa and said:

“The people have been guilty of deceit in the reading of the Qur’an. I like it better to read according to the recitation of him (Prophet) whom I love more than that of Zayd Ibn Thabit. By Him besides Whom there is no god! I learnt more than seventy surahs from the lips of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, while Zayd Ibn Thabit was a youth, (before embracing Islam) having two locks and playing with the youth”.

It was obvious that Ibn Mas’ud despised Zaid and rejected his version of the Quran. Clearly, Zaid was no match to such a great scholar and teacher as himself, Ibn Mas’ud, and such sermons by him are devastating to the history of Islam and to the authenticity of the Quran.


Ubay bin Ka’b

Another of the original four that Muhammad had hand-picked and entrusted with The Quran was Ubay bin Ka’b, acknowledged as the best reciter of his time. He too was greatly disappointed with the “new” Quran.

Sahih Bukhari 6.61.527 states: “Ubayy was the best reciter yet we leave out some of what he recites.”

Ubay’s version had 116 Surahs. Ubayy, in fact, agreed more with Ibn Mas’ud’s version rather than Zaid’s (Uthman’s) version.

We know that, whereas Ibn Mas’ud omitted two surahs (113 and 114) from his version, Ubay included two extra surahs, al-Hafd (the Haste) and al-Khal’ (the Separation). Where is Ibn Mas’ud’s Quran? And where is Ubay’s Quran? Gone. Burnt by Uthman. How can we make comparisons and see which version is genuine now when all the evidences have gone up in smoke?



Uthman’s Version

Before the destruction of the manuscripts, some Muslims preferred the versions other than the Uthman version, for example, those of Ibn Mas’ud, Ubay ibn Ka’b, and Abu Musa. All those versions have disappeared in time. But you’d be mistaken if you thought that the text we have today is perfectly Uthman’s Revised Version of the Quran. Not really. There were further changes made by Al-Hajjaj Ibn Yusuf Al-Thakafi (died 714 AD).

Eventually, under the influence of the great Koranic scholar Ibn Mujahid (died 935A.D.), there was finally a standardization (canonization) in the text resulting in acceptance of seven systems, known as the 7 Qira’at Of The Quran. The list is shown below. [But other scholars accepted ten readings, and still others accepted fourteen readings. Even Ibn Mujahid’s seven provided fourteen possibilities since each of the seven was traced through two different transmitters, viz,]

1. Nafi of Medina according to Warsh and Qalun

2. Ibn Kathir of Mecca according to al-Bazzi and Qunbul

3. Ibn Amir of Damascus according to Hisham and Ibn Dakwan

4. Abu Amr of Basra according to al-Duri and al-Susi

5. Asim of Kufa according to Hafs and Abu Bakr

6. Hamza of Kuga according to Khalaf and Khallad

7. Al-Kisai of Kufa according to al Duri and Abul Harith


The Hafs & Warsh Versions

At present in modern Islam, TWO versions seem to be in use and currently in print, named after their respective 2nd-century transmitters Hafs (from Kufa) and Warsh (from Medina).


Hafs version

The Hafs text is more common and used in most Islamic countries including Saudi Arabia and Egypt.





Warsh version

Warsh is used mainly in West and North-West Africa as well as by the Zaydiya in Yemen.




Many Muslims don’t even know of the existence of these different versions of the modern Quran. Or they will argue that it is only some minor differences in pronunciation or spelling. (Minor or not, the claim that the Quran is perfectly preserved goes out the window.) But the evidence shows there are more than just differences in spelling and pronunciation.

Here are just a couple of differences, showing word changes and even differences in meaning. (There are other differences which you can research for yourself on the internet.)






What Have We Learnt?

The Quran that we have today has gone through numerous changes in history. No Muslim will admit to it but Uthman’s burning did Muslims and the world a big disfavour because now no one can be sure if any of the earlier versions was the true one. Now there is nothing to compare with. So Muslims go on thinking that the Quran is unchanged since it was first written. And that is an unfortunate lie. There are missing verses and chapters. Umar, the second caliph understood this when he said “Let no one of you say that he has acquired the entire Quran, for how does he know that it is all? Much of the Quran has been lost, thus let him say, I have acquired of it what is available’”

The very best scholars and reciters during the time of Muhammad like Ibn Mas’ud, and Ubay bin Ka’b, whom Muhammad himself had personally approved of, rejected the Quran of Uthman, which they were never consulted on. So what do we have? Has the Quran been perfectly preserved? The answer is no.

The Origins Of Muhammad’s Revelation

The Origins Of Muhammad’s Revelation

The basis of the Quran is the revelation to Muhammad.  According to Islam, the revelation was given by the angel Jibreel.

Were there witnesses who saw and heard this to verify the claim? No

Did Muhammad do any miracles to prove what he said happened? No.

I wanted to find out more so I did a brief study on these claims to find evidence that what Muhammad said is true. I think both Christians & Muslims might be surprised (or shocked) by some of these things. I’m sharing it here. If there are any errors, it is unintended. Please let me know, with your proof, so I can correct it. All references about the incident are from accepted Muslim sources like Sahih Hadith Bukhari & Hadith Muslim. (My own analysis of events is based on comparison with the Bible.)

This is how it all unfolded….

Muhammad had an encounter with an angel. He did not know who or what this spiritual being was. The angel that appeared to him began to strangle and press him violently and tried to force him to recite/read. Even though Muhammad pleaded that he was illiterate but the angel kept insisting and kept up the torture. This happened repeatedly for a total of three times.

First of all, an angel is a servant of God and will only do what they are commanded by God. No angel of God has ever acted in a such a violent and abusive manner against a single human being in this way. Secondly, shouldn’t the angel have known that Muhammad was illiterate, yet he cruelly forced Muhammad to do what poor Muhammad just could not do. Thirdly, this incident caused Muhammad such great fear and he was so terrified that he ran back home to his wife Khadija to find comfort.

In the Bible, any time that an angel appears to a human being, his first words are almost always, “DO NOT FEAR.” Because such fear is not from God! We see this repeated over and over again the Bible.  No prophet was ever abused in such a manner! Muhammad was so overcome with FEAR that he is described in Islamic sources as: trembling, heart beating fast, snorting like a horse, and neck muscles twitching. In fact, Muhammad is convinced that it is a demon!

At home Khatija comforts and assures her husband that Allah would not shame him. (even though she did not even witness what actually happened, she was trying her best to make Muhammad feel better; she was just being a good wife!).  How did Khadija come to her conclusion that the “angel” was not from satan? By unveling her private parts with the prophet seated on her lap. Her reasoning was that an angel of God would not be hanging around to while she exposes her private parts.

She [Khadija] said to the apostle of God, ‘O son of my uncle, are you able to tell me about your visitant, when he comes to you?’ He replied that he could, and she asked him to tell her when he came. So when Gabriel came to him, as he was wont, the apostle said to Khadija, ‘This is Gabriel who has just come to me.’ ‘Get up, O son of my uncle, she said, ‘and sit by my left thigh’. The apostle did so, and she said, ‘Can you see him?’ ‘Yes,’ he said. She said, ‘Then turn round and sit on my right thigh.’ He did so, and she said, ‘Can you see him?’ When he said that he could she asked him to move and sit in her lap. When he had done this she again asked if he could see him, and when he said yes, she disclosed her form and cast aside her veil while the apostle was sitting in her lap. Then she said, ‘Can you see him?’ And he replied, ‘No.’ She said, ‘O son of my uncle, rejoice and be of good heart, by God he is an angel and not a satan.’


Later she and Muhammad went to visit her cousin, Waraqa, whom they hoped could make sense of had happened and advise Muhammad. Waraqa was literate and he was supposedly a Christian. I say “supposedly” because there was a heretic cult in that place at the time. They were the Nestorians, whose beliefs differed from what the Bible teaches.

In all likelihood, Waraqa was a Nestorian and not a true Christian, follower of Jesus Christ.

What makes me say this?

What can we know about Waraqa? It is said that he used to “read the Gospel in Arabic”. This is false because the Gospel had not been translated to Arabic at that time! So what was he reading?!

It is also said that Waraqa used to “write/copy the Gospel in Hebrew.” Again this is untrue because the Gospel was only translated to Hebrew a few centuries later. So what was Waraqa copying?!

When Muhammad relates his encounter with the angel to Waraqa, this man, who was old and almost blind by this time, tells Muhammad that the angel is Jibreel (Gabriel). How and why did Waraqa come to such a conclusion when he himself was not there to witness what happened?

Waraqa claims the angel is the SAME Jibreel (Gabriel) that appeared to Moses.  But wait a minute! This is a very crucial point. Gabriel did not appear to Moses!


There is no evidence anywhere in the Bible or in history where Gabriel had appeared to Moses! Where did Waraqa get his information?

In truth, the angel Gabriel is recorded as having appeared to three people in the records of the Bible – Daniel, Zechariah & Mary but NOT to Moses. So what Waraqa said was innaccurate!

Muhammad believes what Waraqa tells him. But he is worried that the Arabs might oppose him because of the revelations. Waraqa assures him that he will support Muhammad as long as he is alive. Unfortunately Waraqa dies a few days later having fed misinformation to his nephew, the would-be prophet!

Muhammad is sad and becomes suicidal and tries to kill himself on several occasions.

Being suicidal is a satanic act. God would never lead anyone to suicide. Muslim scholar Bassam Zawadi defends Muhammad’s attempt to commit suicide and says it is because of depression. He argues, “What, a Prophet cannot be depressed? Says who? What criteria are people using to say that?”

I will give you 3 examples from the Bible of people who were suicidal.

1. King Saul – an evil spirit tortured him. He was often depressed and needed David to soothe him with music. In the end how did Saul die? By killing himself with his own sword.

2. Judas Isacriot – satan entered him. He betrayed Jesus. Regretted it, and he hanged himself.

3. In Mark 9:21 is the story of a young boy who was demon possessed and the evil spirit would always attempt to “kill him by causing him to fall into water (to drown) or fire (to be burnt).” Read the story, Jesus heals the boy. And “the spirit shrieked, convulsed him violently and came out.” And the boy was restored and healed completely.

Did you notice that, “convulsed him violently”. That’s what an evil spirit does to a body it can inhabit.  Similiar to what Muhammad experienced then?

A depiction of Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307, Ilkhanate period.
A depiction of Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami’ al-tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307, Ilkhanate period.

Let’s move on.

After a period of silence, Muhammad again encounters the same angel. And from then on, the revelations became more regular.

According to Muhammad, the angel that appeared to him had 600 wings. Isn’t this a contradiction? The Quran says the maximum number is 4 wings (sura 35:1), which in turn contradicts what the Bible says about angels (seraphims) that have 6 wings. No record anywhere of any angel with 600 wings!

Who is this angel that came to Muhammad? This must be some “special” angel who wanted to terrify and impress Muhammad! Also Muhammad saw the angel filling the sky and horizon and sitting on a throne. A THRONE? An angel that has a throne? This is very very strange!

There is no record anywhere that angels have thrones. The throne is only for God. It becomes clear that this being is a usurper. He is not acting on God’s instructions. This being has his own throne and authority and seems to change/disguise himself to have more wings than even God’s angels!

Therefore, I am convinved that the angel that showed up to Muhammad was not Jibreel (Gabriel) as Waraqa had mistakenly led Muhammad to believe.  Some Hadith sources give the name of the angel as NAMUS.

It is worrisome that there are no such names for any angels anywhere else in the Bible or the Quran.

“Namus” is an Arabic word that means “law” or “custom”. Whereas “Gabriel” means ‘God is my Strength’. So we have Gabriel whose name shows that he is a servant of God and depends on God as his strength, and Namus, who has his own throne and by the definition of his name, would imply that he depends on the law or customs (rituals).  Two very different beings.

So who was it who gave those revelations to Muhammad that became the basis for the Quran?


My conclusions

What Muhammad experienced during the first encounter shows signs of being an encounter by an evil spirit in the manner in which it attacked Muhammad. Hadiths show that Muhammad experienced the influence of magic, witchcraft, had delusions, became suicidal, became stark raving mad for 1 year before he recovered.

Fear is not from God, but from satan. Confusion is not from God. Muhammad was fearful. Muhammad was confused. He was possessed by an evil spirit who abused, tortured and treated him violently so that Muhammad would fall under his authority. It was not the REAL Gabriel. He would never have done that. Waraqa was grossly mistaken.  Read the accounts of Gabriel’s visits to humans and notice that his first words are always “Do not fear!” Satan is able to disguise himself as an angel of light. (2 Cor 11:14).

Satan is known as the father of lies. (John 8:44). What kind of message do you think the father of lies revealed? Jesus said, “The devil comes to steal, kill, and destroy”. (John 10:10)

In my opinion, Muhammad is not to be blamed. The finger needs to be pointed at NAMUS.

Who is NAMUS?



Hadith sources and references:

Sahih Bukhari Vol 1, Bk 1, No. 3; Vol 6, Bk 60, No. 478; Vol 9, Bk 87, No. 111; Sahih Muslim Bk 001, No. 0301, all by Aisha.

Sahih Bukhari Vol 1, Bk 1, No. 3; Vol 4, Bk 55, No. 605;  Vol 4, Bk 54, No. 461: ; Vol 6, Bk 60, No.444, 445, 447,448; Vol 8, Bk 73, No. 233 by Jabir bin Abdullah;

Sahih Muslim Bk 001, No. 0304, 0307, 0330, 0331, 0332, 0333, 0337, 0340.

Sahih Bukhari Vol 4, Bk 54, No. 457: by Aisha; Vol 4, Bk 54, No. 458: by Masruq; Vol 6, Bk 60, No. 379: by Abdullah; Vol 6, Bk 60, No. 380

Suicidal: Sahih Bukhari 9:87:111. Ibn Ishaq p.106-107

Delusions: Bukhari 8:73:220.

Deception: Ishaq 323

Witchcraft: Sahih Muslim 26:5428

Why Was The Quran Compiled Into A Book?

Why Was The Quran Compiled Into A Book?

I have a question.

Who gave the instructions to compile the Quran into a book?

The Prophet Muhammad never gave any such command while he was alive. There was no such instructions from Allah during Muhammad’s lifetime.  The Quran then only existed in the memories of the reciters and some parts were written on stones, bones and leaves.

WHO made the suggestion to compile the Quran into a book? And this was years after Muhammad had died, so it wasn’t from Muhammad, the last prophet, and not from Allah.

The man was Umar ibn ibn Al-Khattāb. He was a close sahaba (companion) of the Prophet. (He would later go on to become the second caliph after Abu Bakr).

Umar got this idea because many of the reciters died in battle and he feared the the words of the Quran would be lost. So he suggested his idea to Abu Bakr, the closest companion of Muhammad.  Abu Bakr was shocked and said, “‘How can I do something which Allah’s apostle has not done?” But Umar kept on arguing until Abu Bakr was persuaded.

Then they went to get Muhammad’s personal scribe to be involved in the project, Zaid ibn Thabit.  What was Zaid’s initial reaction? Zaid said, “How dare you do a thing which the Prophet has not done?” They argued until they persuaded him.

The reactions of Abu Bakr and Zaid Ibn Thabit tell us that Muhammad had no intentions for the Quran to be compiled into a book but to remain in the memories of the reciters.

You can read it for yourself in the Hadith. See Sahih Bukhari Book 6, Volume 60 Hadith 201


Look at the Quran you hold in your hands. The words came from Allah but compiling it into a book was not Muhammad’s intention nor Allah’s command.  If it was, then the instructions would have been given during Muhammad’s lifetime.

Umar thought up the idea. Umar was not a prophet, but a companion of the prophet.

Another question that comes to mind is why isn’t the Quran arranged in the order that the verses were originally revealed to the Prophet?  In the Quran itself Allah says to Muhammad: “We have rehearsed it to you in slow, well-arranged stages, gradually” (Surah 25.32) ; meaning that the Quran was to be well-arranged and revealed in stages gradually and in order.

That would have made more sense.  But instead it was arranged according to the length of the chapters! Did Umar and Abu Bakr and Zaid make a mistake in the well-arranged order of the revelations that Allah gave to Muhammad?  They were not prophets and they did not have a divine right to compile the Quran in the way they did. Ultimately, were they right or wrong?  Unfortunately, the Prophet was no longer around to approve or disapprove of what they had done to the words of Allah.